A Paradigm Shift required in Urban Planning to achieve TOD: Critical Appraisal of Delhi’s Master Plan 2041


  • Sahil Singh Kapoor Sushant University
  • Dr. Tejwant Singh Brar Senior Professor, Sushant School of Art & Architecture, Sushant University, Gurugram, India


Delhi, Master Plan, TOD, Indicator, Land use


Although there many similar definitions of Transit-oriented Development (TOD) by different authors worldwide. But, in Indian context, TOD aims to create a moderate to high density development with mixed land-uses within maximum walking distance of 800 meters from a transit station. Delhi will be surpassing Tokyo as world’s largest city with about 37.4 million population in 2018 by increasing its urban agglomeration population to about 38.9 million till 2030. Thereby, it becomes necessary to identify a set of criteria and indicators related with TOD that can evaluate the TOD policy enlisted in the recent Delhi’s Master Plan prepared for the year 2041. The study has generated 12 indicators as Population/commercial densities, Mixedness of land uses, Green Public spaces, walkable/cyclable paths, Intersection densities, Station transit ridership, Basic Amenities at the station and Safety and security of the commuters at the station, access to job opportunities within walkable distance from train station and Parking supply of four wheelers/cycles at the station to be evaluated in the MPD 2041. The data for these indicators is readily available in the secondary sources particularly Master Plan either as quantified expression or qualitative in nature. The need is felt in the MPD 2041 to prepare and develop TOD typologies for successful TOD implementation as highlighted extensively in the literature review. Assigning TOD typology will take into account both, built-environment and transport characteristics.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmad, S., Avtar, R., Sethi, M. & Surjan, A., 2016. Delhi's land cover change in post transit era. Cities, Volume 50, p. 111–118.

Bangalore Development Authority, 2007. Bangalore Master Plan - 2015, Bangalore: Bangalore Development Authority.

Delhi Development Authority, 2010. Master Plan for Delhi - 2021, New Delhi: DDA.

Delhi Development Authority, 2021. Master Plan of Delhi 2041, Delhi: DDA.

Ellis, P. & Roberts, M., 2016. Leveraging Urbanization in South Asia: Managing Spatial Transformation for Prosperity and Livability, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Global Platform for Sustainable Cities, World Bank, 2018. TOD Implementation Resources & Tools.. 1st ed. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Jain, D., Jha, B., Singh, E. & Ashtt, R., 2021. Understanding The Reform Of Public Transit In India. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, 12(13), pp. 525-530.

Jain, D. & Singh, E., 2019. Transit Oriented Development In India: A Critical Review Of Policy Measures. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 7(6S2), pp. 745-751.

Jain, D., Singh, E. & Ashtt, R., 2020. A Systematic Literature on Application of Transit Oriented Development. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 9(3), pp. 2542-2552.

Joshi, R., 2017. Towards an Inclusive and Low-carbon Transit. Oriented Development in Indian Cities, New Delhi: Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation (Shakti).

Joshi, R., 2020. LAP FOR TRANSIT: Illustrated handbook for Indian cities, Delhi: Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT).

Joshi, S., Bailey, A. & Datta, A., 2020. On the move? Exploring constraints to accessing urban mobility infrastructures. Transport Policy.

Mehta, P. V., Mungekar, N. & Mathew, M., 2014. Transit Oriented Development Manual: Delhi TOD Policy & Regulations Interpretation, New Delhi: WRI India.

Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs, 2018. National Urban Policy Framework, New Delhi: Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs.

Mittal, H. & Shah, A., 2021. Discursive politics and policy (im)mobility: Metro-TOD policies in India. EPC: Politics and Space, pp. 1-18.

MoHUA, 2016. India Habitat III National Report 2016, New Delhi: Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.

MoHUA, 2017. National TOD policy, Delhi: Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India.

Nagaraj, L., 2013. LTSAPS For Bangalore Metro: Transit Oriented Performance Recommendations, Bangalore, India: Center for Infrastructure, Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning (CiSTUP), Indian Institute of Science.

OECD/European Commission, 2020. Cities in the World: A New Perspective on Urbanisation, Paris: OECD Urban Studies, OECD.

Shahdadpuri, A., 2021. Who Is the Master; What Is the Plan? Deconstructing Master Planning: A case study from Delhi’s civic campaign ‘Main Bhi Dilli’. Journal of Planning, Architecture and Design, 1(1), p. 14–22.

Singh, Y. J. et al., 2014. Measuring transit oriented development: a spatial multi criteria assessment approach for the City Region Arnhem and Nijmegen. Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 35, p. 130–143.

Singh, Y. J. et al., 2017. Measuring TOD around transit nodes - Towards TOD policy. Transport Policy, Volume 56, p. 96–111.

Sulistyaningrum, S. & Sumabrata, J., 2018. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) index at the current transit nodes in Depok City, Indonesia. Indonesia, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 126 012217, pp. 1-12.

Suzuki, H., Cervero, R. & Iuchi, K., 2013. Transforming Cities with Transit: Transit and Land-Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Tewari, M. & Godfrey, N., 2016. Better Cities, Better Growth: India’s Urban Opportunity, London, Washington, DC, and New Delhi: New Climate Economy, World Resources Institute, and Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations.

UN-Habitat, 2020. World Cities Report 2020, Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat).

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2019. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision, New York: United Nations.




How to Cite

Kapoor, S. S. and Brar, D. T. S. (2022) “A Paradigm Shift required in Urban Planning to achieve TOD: Critical Appraisal of Delhi’s Master Plan 2041”, Conscious Urbanism, 2(1), pp. 16–22. Available at: https://jpad.copalpublishing.com/index.php/cu/article/view/18 (Accessed: 4 December 2022).



Original Research Article